Bogor (Indonesian: Kota Bogor) is a city on the island
of Java in the West Java province of Indonesia. The
city is located in the center of the Bogor Regency (Indonesian:
Kabupaten Bogor), 60 kilometers south of the Indonesian
capital Jakarta. Bogor itself is a recognized as a municipality
(cat); it is an important economic, scientific, cultural
and tourist center, as well as a mountain resort.
In the Middle Ages, the city was the capital of Sunda
Kingdom (Indonesian: Kerajaan Sunda) and was called
Pakuan Pajajaran. During the Dutch colonization of Indonesia,
it was named Buitenzorg and served as the summer residence
of the Governor-General of Dutch East Indies. The city
was the administrative center of the Netherlands East
Indies during the British control in the early 19th
With several hundred thousand people living on an area
of about 20 km², the central part of Bogor is one of
the world's most densely populated areas. The city has
a presidential palace and a botanical garden (Indonesian:
Kebun Raya Bogor) – one of the oldest and largest in
the world. It bears the nickname "the Rain City" (Kota
Hujan), because of frequent rain showers. It nearly
always rains even during the dry season.
The first mentioning of a settlement at present Bogor
dates to the 5th century when the area was part of Tarumanagara,
one of the first states on the territory of modern Indonesia.
After a series of defeats from the neighboring Srivijaya,
Tarumanagara was transformed into the Sunda Kingdom,
and in 669, the capital of Sunda was built between the
small rivers Ciliwung and Cisadane. It was named Pakuan
Pajajaran, that in old Sundanese means "a place between
the parallel [rivers]", and became the predecessor of
the modern Bogor.
Over the next several centuries, Pakuan Pajajaran become
one of the largest cities in medieval Indonesia with
population reaching 48,000. The name Pajajaran was then
used for the entire kingdom, and the capital was simply
called Pakuan. The chronicles of that time were written
in Sanskrit, which was the language of the Church, using
the Pallava writing system, on rock stellas called prasasti.
The prasasti found in and around Bogor differ in shape
and text style from other Indonesian prasasti and are
among the main attractions of the city.
In the 9–15th centuries, the capital was moving between
Pakuan and other cities of the kingdom, and finally
returned to Pakuan by King Siliwangi (Badugi Sri Maharaja)
on 3 June 1482 – the day of his coronation. Since 1973,
this date is celebrated in Bogor as an official city
In 1579, Pakuan was captured and almost completely destroyed
by the army of Sultanate of Banten, ceasing the existence
of the State of Sunda. The city was abandoned and remained
uninhabited for decades.
Dutch East India Company
In the second half of the 17th century, the abandoned
Pakuan as most of West Java, while formally remaining
under the Sultanate of Banten, gradually passed under
control of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). The formal
transition occurred on 17 April 1684 by signing an agreement
between the Crown Prince of Banten and the VOC.
The first, and temporal, colonial settlement at Pakuan
was a camp of lieutenant Tanuwijaya, a Sundanese employed
by the VOC who was sent in 1687 to develop the area.
It was seriously damaged by the eruption on 4–5 January
1699 of the Mount Salak volcano (Indonesian: Gunung
Salak), however the concomitant forest fires removed
much forest, leaving much area for the planned rice
and coffee plantations. In a short time, several agricultural
settlements appeared around Pakuan, the largest being
Kampung Baru (lit. "new village"). In 1701, they were
combined into an administrative district; Tanuwijaya
was chosen as the head of the district and is regarded
as the founder of the modern Bogor Regency.
The district was further developed during the 1703 Dutch
mission headed by the Inspector General of the VOC Abraham
van Riebeeck (the son of the founder of Cape Town Jan
van Riebeeck and later Governor of Dutch East Indies).
The expedition of van Riebeeck performed a detailed
study of the Pakuan ruins, discovered and described
many archaeological artifacts, including prasasti, and
erected buildings for the VOC employees. The area attracted
the Dutch by a favorable geographical position and mild
climate, preferred over the hot Batavia which was then
the administrative center of the Dutch East Indies.
In 1744–1745, the residence of the Governor-General
was built in Pakuan which was hosting the government
during the summer.
In 1746, by the order of the Governor-General Gustaaf
Willem van Imhoff, the Palace, a nearby Dutch settlement
and nine native settlements were merged into an administrative
division named Buitenzorg (meaning either "beyond care"
or "outside care"). Around the same time, the first
reference to Bogor as the local names of the city was
documented; it was mentioned in the administration report
from 7 April 1752 with respect to the part of Buitenzorg
adjacent to the Palace. Later this name became used
for the whole city as the local alternative to Buitenzorg.
This name is believed to originate from the Javanese
word bogor meaning sugar palm (Arenga pinnata), which
in still used in the Indonesian language. Alternative
origins are the old-Javanese word bhagar (meaning cow),
or simply the misspelling of "Buitenzorg" by the local
The city grew rapidly in the late 18th – early 19th
centuries. This growth was partly stimulated by the
temporary occupation of the Dutch East Indies by United
Kingdom in 1811–1815 – the British landed on Java and
other Sunda Islands to prevent their capture by Napoleonic
France which then conquered the Netherlands. The head
of the British administration Stamford Raffles moved
the administrative center from Batavia to Buitenzorg
and implemented new and more efficient management techniques.
Rule of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
After Buitenzorg was returned to the Dutch, it fell
under the rule of the Kingdom of the Netherlands rather
than VOC. The Buitenzorg Palace was reinstated as the
summer residence of the Governor-General. A botanical
garden was set up nearby in 1817, which was one of the
world's largest gardens in the 19th century.
On 10 October 1834, Buitenzorg was seriously damaged
by another eruption of the Salak volcano caused by an
earthquake. Taking into account the seismic activity
of the region, the governor's palace and office buildings
constructed in 1840–1850 were built shorter but sturdier
than those built prior to the eruption. The Governor's
decree of 1845 prescribed separate settlements of European,
Chinese and Arab migrants within the city.
In 1860–1880, the largest agricultural school in the
colony was established in Buitenzorg. Other scientific
institutions including a city library, natural science
museum, biology, chemistry, and veterinary medicine
laboratories were also constructed during this period.
By the end of the 19th century, Buitenzorg became one
of the most developed and Westernized cities in Indonesia.
In 1904, Buitenzorg formally became the administrative
center of the Dutch East Indies. However, real management
remained in Batavia, which hosted most of the administrative
offices and the main office of the governor. This status
was revoked in the administrative reform of 1924, which
divided the colony into provinces and set Buitenzorg
as the center of West Java Province.
During World War II Buitenzorg and the entire territory
of Dutch East Indies were occupied by Japanese forces;
the occupation lasted from 6 March 1942 until the summer
of 1945. As part of the efforts by the Japanese to promote
nationalist (and thus anti-Dutch) sentiments among the
local population the city was given the Indonesian name
Bogor. The city had one of the major training centers
of the Indonesian militia PETA (Pembela Tanah Air –
"Defenders of the Motherland").
On 17 August 1945, Indonesia became independent state,
but, soon the Dutch regained control of the town and
adjoining areas. In February 1948, Bogor was included
in the quasi-independent state of West Java,(Indonesian:
Negara Jawa Barat) which was renamed in April 1948 into
Pasundan (Indonesian: Negara Pasundan). This state was
established by the Netherlands as a step to transform
their former colonial possessions in the East Indies
into a dependent federation. In December 1949, Pasundan
joined the Republic of the United States of Indonesia
(Indonesian: Republik Indonesia Serikat, RIS) established
at the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference of 23
August – 2 November 1949. In February 1950, as a result
of defeat of Pasundan in a quick military conflict with
the Republic of Indonesia, the city became part of Indonesia,
as formalized in August 1950, and its name was officially
declared as Bogor.
As part of Indonesia
As part of independent Indonesia, Bogor began to play
a significant role in the cultural, scientific and economic
development of the country and West Java in particular
– primarily due to the infrastructure built during the
colonial period. Its special position was further reinforced
by the transformation of the former summer residence
of the governor-general into the summer palace of the
President of Indonesia. In the 1990s–2000s, the city
regularly hosted various international events, such
as ministry-level meetings of the Asia-Pacific institutions
and the APEC summit of 15 November 1994. Since 2008,
a Christian church congregation in Bogor has been embroiled
with Islamic fundamentalists over the building permit
for their new church.
Geography, topography, geology
The city is situated in the western part of Java island,
about 60 km south of the capital Jakarta and 85 km northwest
of Bandung, the administrative center of West Java Province.
Bogor spreads over a basin near volcanoes Salak, which
peaks at about 12 km south, and Gunung Gede whose top
is 22–25 km south-east of the city. The average elevation
is 265 meters, maximum 330 m, and minimum 190 meters
above sea level. The terrain is rather uneven: 17.64
km² of its area has slopes of 0–2°, 80.9 km² from 2°
to 15°, 11 km² between 15° and 25°, 7.65 km² from 25°
to 40° and 1.20 km² over 40°; the northern part is relatively
flat and the southern part is more hilly.
The soils are dominated by volcanic sedimentary rocks.
Given the proximity of large active volcanoes, the area
is considered highly seismic. The total area of green
space is 205,000 m², of which 87,000 m² are Bogor Botanical
Gardens, 19,400 m² are taken by 35 parks, 17,200 m²
by 24 groves and 81,400 m² are covered with grass.
Several rivers flow through the city toward the Java
Sea. The largest ones, Ciliwung and Cisadane, flank
the historic city center. Smaller rivers, Cipakancilan,
Cidepit, Ciparigi and Cibalok, are guided by cement
tubes in many places. It is worth noting that "ci" in
the river names mere means "river" in Sundanese, and
the actual name begins after it, but the "ci" is nevertheless
included into national and international maps. There
are several small lakes within the city, including Situ
Burung (lit. Bird Lake; "Situ" meaning "Lake") and Situ
Gede (lit. Great Lake), with the area of several hectares
each. Rivers and lakes occupy 2.89% of the city area.
The climate is equatorial, and more humid and rainy
than in many other areas of West Java – the average
relative humidity is 70%, the average annual precipitation
is about 1700 mm, but more than 3500 mm in some areas.
Most rains fall between December and February. Because
of this weather, Bogor has the nickname "Rain City"
(Indonesian: Kota hujan). The temperatures are lower
than in Java: the average maximum is 25.9 °C (cf. 32.2
°C in Jakarta). Daily fluctuations (9–10 °C) are rather
high for Indonesia. The absolute maximum temperature
was recorded at 38 °C and the minimum at 3 °C.
According to the national census held in May–August
2010, 949,066 people were registered in Bogor. The average
population density is about 8,000 people per km²; it
reaches 12,571 persons per km² in the center and drops
to 5,866 people per km² in the southern part.
The rapid population growth in Bogor after 1960 is related
to urbanization as well as the influx of workforce from
other parts of the country. The birth rate in 2009 was
563 children per 10,000 people, with the mortality value
of 272. During the same year, 12,709 permanent resident
moved in and 3,391 people left the city. Men constituted
51.06% and women 48.94% of the population; 28.39% of
the inhabitants were under 15 years old, 67.42% were
aged 15–65 years and 3.51% – over 65 years. The 2005
estimate of the life expectancy is 71.8 years, which
is the highest figure for West Java and one of the highest
Most population (87%) are Sundanese, with considerable
numbers of Javanese, Chinese and other, often mixed
ethnicities. Virtually all adults are fluent in Indonesian
– the official language of the country. Sundanese is
used at home and in some public areas and events – for
example, the solemn speech of the mayor at the City
Day celebration of 3 June 2010 was delivered in Sundanese.
The local dialect of Sundanese significantly differs
from the classical version both lexically and phonetically.
The majority of population (94%) are Muslims, with just
over 5% Christians. However, there are many Christian
churches in the city, as well as Buddhist (mostly in
the Chinese community ) and Hindu communities.
Bogor City belongs to the Bogor Regency (kabupaten)
and in itself is a separate municipality (cat). The
city is divided into six areas (kecamatan), which contain
68 low-level administrative units, 31 of which have
the status of settlement and 37 are villages.
The city is headed by the mayor elected by the citizens
every 5 years, together with vice-mayor; in the past,
the mayor was appointed by the provincial administration.
Diani Budiarto became the first elected mayor of Bogor
on 25 October 2008 and assumed his position on 7 April
2009. Legislative power is provided by the City Council
which consists of 45 people's representatives who are
also elected by the residents for a 5 year term. Nine
political parties consisting of five fractions are represented
in the Council.
The coat of arms of Bogor is a rectangular heraldic
shield with a pointed base and the side lengths ratio
of 5:4, divided by a cross into four parts. The upper
left quarter contains the State Emblem of Indonesia
– the mythical bird Garuda, in the upper left is the
presidential palace, in the bottom left is the Salak
volcano, and in the lower right is the national Sundanese
dagger kujang. The inscription on top reads "KOTA BOGOR"
meaning "CITY BOGOR".
Bogor has developed automotive chemical and food industries;
its outlying areas are used for agriculture. During
the colonization, Bogor was mostly producing coffee,
rubber and high-quality timber. Chemical industry was
introduced to the city at the end of the 19th century,
and car and metal production in the 1950s, during the
industrialization of independent Indonesia. The fast
economic development of the 1980s was slowed down by
the crisis of the 1990s and recovered in the early 2000s;
so the growth rate of the economy in Bogor was 5.78%
in 2002, 6.07% in 2003 and 6.02% in 2009. At the end
of 2009, the Gross Regional Product (GRP) was 12.249
trillion IDR (approximately 1.287 billion USD) and the
investments amounted to 932.295 billion IDR.
Despite the economical growth, the number of citizens
living below the poverty level (defined by not only
cash income, but also access to basic social services)
is increasing, primarily due to the inflow of poor residents
of the surrounding rural areas. In 2009, 17.45% of the
population lived below the poverty level, almost twice
higher than in 2006 (9.5%) Minimum wage is established
by the city authorities at 800,000 IDR/month.
In 2008 there were 3,208 officially registered industrial
enterprises in Bogor employing 54,268 people, more than
half (32,237) of whom worked at the 114 largest companies.
The outskirts of the city contain about 3,466 hectares
of agricultural area, including 111 hectares of water
bodies used for fishery and fish farming. The main crops
are rice (1165 hectares as of 2007, the annual harvest
in 2003 was 9,953 tonnes), various vegetables (772 acres,
8,296 tonnes), corn (382 acres, 6,720 tonnes) and sweet
potato (480 acres, 3,480 tonnes). The livestock sector
has 25 registered companies (as of 2007) mostly breeding
cows (more than 1000 animals yielding more than 2.61
million liters of milk), sheep (about 12,000), chickens
(more than 642,000) and ducks (ca. 8,000).
About 25–30 tonnes of various species of fish are produced
per year by 4 registered companies. The fishes are mostly
bred artificially, in ponds and paddy fields. Breeding
aquarium fish and also catching them in their natural
habitat is an important industry sector, which yielded
367,000 USD from 2008 export sales only, mostly to Japan
and Middle East. A substantial part of other Bogor production,
144 billion IDR in 2008, is exported. Examples are clothes
and footwear (to US, EU, ASEAN, Canada, Australia, Russia),
textiles (US, New Zealand), furniture (South Korea),
car tires (ASEAN countries and South America), toys
and souvenirs (Japan, Germany, Brazil), soft drinks
(ASEAN countries and Middle East). Most of the local
sells are carried out via the eight major shopping centers,
nine supermarkets and seven major markets.
Bogor is a major transport center of Java. It contains
599.2 kilometers of roads (as of 2008) which cover 5.31%
of the city area; 30.2 kilometers of the roads are of
national and 26.8 km of prefectural importance. The
22 transport lines are operated by 3,506 buses and minibuses.
In addition, 10 bus routes connect the city with the
nearest metropolitan area (4,612 buses) and 40 with
other cities of West Java (330 buses). There are two
major bus terminals, Baranangsiang and Bubulak. The
former has an area of 22,100 m² and is dedicated to
long-distance and freight traffic while the latter (area
11,850 m²) serves urban passenger routes. A separate
station is dedicated to tourist coaches and buses to
the nearest Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in
Jakarta, located about 55 kilometers from Bogor. Recent
years see a significant increase in the number of traditional
Indonesian rickshaw (becak) at more than 2,000 units
as of 2009. The train station of Bogor was built in
1881, and currently serves about 50,000 passengers and
has about 70 departures and 70 arrivals per day.
Housing and facilities
Residential buildings occupy 26.46% of the city, or
71.11% of its built-up area; 5–14 storey buildings dominate
the central part and the outlying areas are mostly built
up with single-storeyed houses. The population rise
in the 1990s–2000s due to the inflow of external workforce
sharply increased the number of substandard housing,
mainly on the outskirts of the city. More than half
of the slums (1,242,490 m²) are located in northern
Bogor, whereas their area is only 89,780 m² in southern
part of the city. To improve this situation, the city
administration launched a program of construction of
cheap housing types (light prefabricated houses) in
the western Bogor. These houses combine reasonable rent
($22 per year) at acceptable living conditions.
Electricity to Bogor is supplied by Indonesian state
company Perusahaan Listrik Negara, which serves the
provinces of West Java and Banten. Electricity is provided
by more than ten regional thermal and hydroelectric
power plants via two local transformer stations located
in the Bogor districts of Cimahpar and Cibilong. Whereas
most of the houses (excluding some slum areas) are provided
with electricity, street lighting covers only 35.38%
of the city (4,193 light sources, as of 2007), however,
the number of street lights is increasing at an annual
rate of 10–15%.
As of 2009, only 47% of Bogor is provided with clean
tap water through a centralized water supply systems
managed by state-owned Tirta Pakuan. The municipal system
takes water from rivers Cisadane (1240 liters per second),
and three natural sources: Kota Batu, Bentar-Kambing
and Tangka (410 liters per second). Although, the water
network has a total length of 741 kilometers and covers
about 70% of the city, connection to it is often problematic
for financial and technical reasons. More than half
of residents use water wells or natural reservoirs.
Garbage collection service covers 67% of the urban area.
From about 800,000 m3 of waste per year, about 90% is
buried at an external landfill at Galuga, about 7% is
recycled for compost and about 3% is burned in five
incinerators within the city.
The seven cemeteries of Bogor are named by the city
districts as Cilendek, Kayumanis, Situgede, Mulyahardzha,
Blender, Dreded and Gunung Gadung. The first six have
the status of "public cemeteries" (Indonesian: Tempat
pemakaman umum), and have no restrictions by religion
or ethnicity. However, given the religious composition
of Bogor, the cemeteries are predominantly Muslim, and
Christian graves are located either in separate areas
of cemeteries or in a small cemetery adjacent to churches.
Some mosques also have small burial plots. Graves for
poor and nameless are mostly located at Kayumanis, and
Gunung Gadung cemetery is restricted to Chinese residents.
Education and science
Bogor is one of the major scientific and educational
centers in Indonesia. A significant part of academic
and research base was laid in the period of Dutch colonization.
In particular, since the beginning of the 19th century
there were established laboratories and professional
schools focused primarily on improving the efficiency
of the colonial agricultural; In the late 19th – early
20th centuries have been established over major scientific
institutions – the Research Institute and Rubber Research
Institute of Forest.
Similar to the prevailing profile of research and academic
activity was retained in Bogor Indonesia and after gaining
independence. As in the second half of 20th century,
and in the 2000s strongest areas were agricultural science,
Biology and Veterinary. The main educational and scientific
center with the utmost national importance, is the Bogor
Institute of Agriculture, whose structure, in addition
to educational facilities, includes dozens of research
centers and laboratories.
The literacy rate in Bogor (98.7%) is rather high for
Indonesia. Bogor Institute of Agriculture (Indonesian:
Institut Pertanian Bogor) is the main agricultural university
of the country. It was founded in 1963 based on the
agricultural college, which was established back in
the 19th century by the Dutch colonial administration.
The largest private universities are Pakuan, Juanda,
Nusa Bangsa and Ibn Khaldun. In addition to regular
schools, there are over 700 Muslim schools (madrasah)
and several Christian schools and colleges.
Most scientific research in Bogor is carried out in
agriculture, soil science, dendrology, veterinary and
ichthyology. More specific areas include natural pesticides
and repellents, intercropping, industrial applications
of essential oils and natural alkaloids, increasing
yields of various kinds of pepper, improving preservation
processes, etc. The city hosts the Center for International
Forestry Research (CIFOR) – a non-profit scientific
structure, operating under the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Bogor is one of the leading cities of Indonesia by the
number of musea, some of which are among the oldest
and largest in the country. The Zoological Museum (Indonesian:
Museum Zoologi) which was opened in 1894 by the Dutch
colonial administration as an adjunct to the Botanic
Gardens and contains thousands of exhibits. Other prominent
musea are more recent. So the museum of ethnobotany
(Indonesian: Museum Etnobotani) was opened in 1982 and
has more than 2000 exhibits; museum of the earth (Indonesian:
Museum Tanah, 1988) represents hundreds of soil and
rock samples from different parts of Indonesia; museum
of the struggle (Indonesian: Museum Perjuangan, 1957)
is devoted to the history of the Indonesian national
liberation movement; and museum of PETA (1996) reflects
the history of the Indonesian military militia PETA
(Pembela Tanah Air – "Defenders of the Motherland ")
created during World War II by the Japanese administration.
The city has a drama theater, dozens of movie theaters,
nine of which (as of mid-2010) are set-up at international
standards. The presidential palace, administrative buildings
and universities regularly host art exhibitions, and
there are regular festivals of folk art, conferences
and culture-related seminars, such as the Congress of
Indonesian culture (Indonesian: Kongres Kebudayaan Indonesia)
The first hospitals were established in Bogor in the
first half of the 19th century by the Dutch authorities.
By the early 20th century, there were several civilian
hospitals, a military hospital, and a large psychiatric
hospital with doctors from Europe and North America.
In the 1930s, the Dutch Red Cross Society hospital became
the largest in the city. Most of the existing hospitals
and clinics are built in the 1980s–1990s. They include
11 hospitals, 373 private clinics, 51 single-doctor
clinics and 134 pharmacies and drug stores, and employ
274 general practitioners, 122 dentists, 74 sanitation
doctors, 37 radiologists (X-ray), 141 gynecologists,
32 nutritionists, 55 assistants, 710 nurses, 63 pharmacists
and 99 doctors of other specialties.
The 11 hospitals of Bogor are:
Hospital of the Indonesian Red Cross Society (Indonesian:
Rumah Sakit Palang Merah Indonesia) – general, the oldest
in the city
"Karya Bhakti" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Karya Bhakti)
"Salak" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Salak) – general
"Ciawi" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Ciawi) – hospital of
the Indonesian Red Cross Society, general
"Atang Sanjaya" (Indonesian: Atang Sanjaya) – general
hospital of Air Force
Bogor Medical Center – general practitioners, private
Islamic Hospital (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Islam) – general,
only for Muslims
"Azra" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Azra) – women and children
"Melania" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Melania) – women
"Hermina" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Hermina) – women
"Marzuki Mahdi" (Indonesian: Rumah Sakit Marzuki Mahdi)
– infectious diseases
Bogor has two daily Indonesian-language newspapers –
"Radar Bogor", founded in 1998 and Jurnal Bogor, founded
in 2008. Both print in about 25,000 copies and have
electronic versions. Bogor offices also partly print
part some Javanese and national newspapers. There are
a few magazines and scientific publications of the local
The two municipal TV channels, "Bogor-TV" and "Megasvara
TV" broadcast at UHF channel 25 over the city and nearby
areas of West Java. There are also at least 30 local
radio stations, of which 20 are in the FM and 10 in
the AM range.
As of March 2010, the Bogor teams were registered in
28 sports to participate in national and regional competitions
conducted by the National Sports Committee of Indonesia
(Indonesian: Komite Nasional Olahraga Indonesia). Their
achievements are regarded as poor. So at the Java competitions,
Bogor athletes took 5 gold medals instead of the planned
42. The largest among 15 sports organizations is the
Bogor Football Union (Indonesian: Persatuan Sepakbola
Bogor), headed by the current Mayor Diani Budiarto.
The local football team "PSB Bogor" never took prizes
in the national championships. The local Stadium Pajajaran
can accommodate 25,000 spectators.
Travel and places
On a national tourism exhibition of 2010 in Jakarta,
Bogor was recognized as the most attractive tourist
city of Indonesia. The city and its surrounding area
are visited by about 1.8 million people per year, of
whom more than 60,000 are foreigners. The main tourist
attraction is the Bogor Botanical Garden. Founded in
1817, it contains more than 6,000 species of tropical
plants. Besides, about 42 bird species breed within
the garden, although this number is declining and was
62 before 1952. The garden's 87-hectare area within
the city was supplemented in 1866 by a 120-hectare park
in suburban town of Cibodas. Much of the original rainforest
was preserved within the garden providing specimens
for scientific studes. Besides, the garden was enriched
by collections of palms, bamboos, cacti, orchids and
ornamental trees. It became famous in the late 19th
century and was visited by naturalists from abroad to
conduct scientific research. For example, the Russian
St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences had a Buitenzorg
scholarship for young scientists to work at Bogor. The
staff of Bogor garden also administer three other major
gardens of Iindonesia: the Cibodas Botanical Garden
founded 1862 in West Java, the Purwodadi Botanical Garden
in East Java and the Eka Karya Botanical Garden founded
in 1959 on Bali island.
Another tourist attraction is the presidential palace
with the total area of 28 hectares, including 1.8492
hectares of the palace buildings. The palace is surrounded
by a park with a small pond. The park is home to a herd
of tame deer and is open to the public most of the year.
The palace is accessible during holidays, such as the
City Day and Independence Day; it has a collection of
450 paintings and 360 sculptures.
The city and its suburbs contain dozens of medieval
stone stellas (prasasti). Fifteen prasasti of the greatest
historical and cultural value are collected in a special
pavilion in the district of Batutulis. In the western
part of Bogor there is a large lake Gede (area 6 hectares)
surrounded by the reserved forest area and a forest
park. In the protected area there are several research
facilities, and the recreation areas host sports activities,
boating and fishing.
On the territory of the botanic garden, there is a cemetery
established in 1784. It contains 42 historical graves
of the Dutch colonial officials, military officers and
scientists, who served in Bogor, Jakarta and other cities
in West Java from the late 18th to early 20th centuries.
Nearby, there are three graves of the early Sunda Kingdom
(15th century): the wife of the founder of Bogor Silivangi,
Galuh Mangku Alam, vizier Ba'ul and commander Japra.
The locals regard these individuals as the city's patrons.
Other historical places are the Bogor Cathedral – built
in 1750, it is one of the oldest operational Catholic
Churches in Indonesia, and the Buddhist temple Hok Tek
Bio, built in 1672 in the classical South Chinese style.
It is the first Buddhist temple of Bogor and one of
the oldest in Indonesia.
St. Louis, United States – since 2007
Shenzhen, People's Republic of China – since 2005
Gödöllõ, Hungary – since 2008